Basic Definitions of Mucinous Adenocarcinoma

Mucino adenocarcinoma on eyebrow

Mucino adenocarcinoma on eyebrow

A mucinous adenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that produces what is called “mucin”, which is the main component of mucus. They begin to form on the lining of certain internal and external organs like the skin. Mucinous adenocarcinoma’s from cells called “epithelial cells”. On the skin, it can be recognized by its characteristic reddish, elevated mass that is often round and ulcerated.

“Adeno-“ means “gland”. Glands commonly secrete things in the body (endocrine glands) or outside of the body (exocrine glands). For example, mucous and sweat are secreted by exocrine glands.

A “Carcinoma” is a malignant tumor that starts in epithelial cells. If you put the 2 words together (Adeno-Carcinoma) you will see that what they mean are malignant tumors that start in the epithelial cells lining endocrine or exocrine glands.

Now to the term “mucinous”. Mucinous simply means “lots of mucous”.

So to bring it all together, a Mucinous Adencarcinoma is a malignant tumor that originates in epithelial cells on exocrine glands with lots of mucous.

It has been suggested by experts that the presence of mucouse can help a cancer spread faster through the body. This means that mucinous adencarcinoma’s are considered quite aggressive cancers then regular adencarcinomas and so are also harder to treat.

Mucino adenocarcinoma account for 10-15% of all adenocarcinomas.

Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Appendix

Mucinous tumors – meaning tumors that produce mucous – of the appendix are quite rare. In normal cases, a thin layer of cells lining the inside of the appendix produce mucous in small amounts. These cells typically die off at the sate rate they reproduce. When tumors occur, the cells reproduce much faster than they die off, creating a mass of cells. These masses of cells are practically the tumors and can produce large amounts of mucous.

There are several types of mucous-producing tumors that can occur in the appendix. These tumors can be either benign or malign. Benign tumors are different from cancerous tumors in the sense that the former don’t usually invade normal tissue or spread to other areas of the body, causing metastasizes. On the other hand, cancerous tumors often do both.

Mucinous adenocarcinoma of the appendix is cancerous, being also the most common type of appendix cancer. Mucinous adenoma, also known as mucinous cystadenoma, is a benign tumor of the appendix. Both types of tumors can release cells into the abdomen and adhere to the inner (peritoneal) surfaces of the abdomen. Some tumor cells may even settle in parts of the abdomen and pelvis. These mucous-producing cells can grow into new tumors and create more mucous.

Even though they are benign, non-cancerous mucous-producing tumors of the appendix may still be fatal if they grow rapidly or create too much mucous. Therefore, they are referred to as low-grade malignancies when they spread into the abdomen. Very large amounts of thick mucous can be produced by both the benign and the malign types of tumors and can cause the abdomen to become bloated with mucinous ascites. In popular language, this phenomenon is known as “jelly belly”. The large amounts of this thick mucous in the abdomen can eventually squash the organs and cause death.

However, with proper treatment, the prognosis for these benign, low-grade mucous-producing tumors is quite high, the survival outcomes being much better than those of high-grade cancerous tumors of the appendix. Below you can read more about mucinous adenocarcinoma of the appendix, the cancerous type of tumor.

Overview

  • It is the most common cancer of the appendix.
  • It accounts for about 37% of all appendix cancers.
  • It is a high-grade cancerous tumor that produces mucous, but also more commonly invades soft tissues and organs.
  • It may grow faster and is more likely to metastasize (spread) to the lymph nodes, liver and lungs than the low-grade, benign mucinous adenoma.
  • The medical term for extensive spread of these cancerous tumors into the abdomen is Peritoneal Mucinous Carcinomatosis (PMCA) – commonly known as “jelly belly”.

Symptoms

  • Appendicitis is commonly the first symptom of both the benign and cancerous mucous-producing tumor.
  • Both tumors may cause the abdomen to increase in size or form masses in the abdomen or in the pelvis.
  • In men, the first symptom is sometimes an inguinal hernia.
  • In women, the first symptom is often an ovarian mass.

Treatment

  • Treatment for mucinous adenoma that has not ruptured and that is confined to the appendix is removal of the appendix.
  • Treatment for mucinous adenocarcinoma confined to the appendix when the appendix has not ruptured is appendectomy and right hemicolectomy, meaning surgical removal of the appendix and up to half of the right side of the colon.
  • Treatment for mucinous adenocarcinoma that has spread extensively into the abdomen consists of cytoreduction surgery to remove mucous and tumor implants in the abdominal cavity, followed by intraoperative hyperthermic peritoneal chemotherapy. This treatment also applies to benign mucinous tumors.
  • Chemotherapy may also be additionally used for treatment of mucinous adenocarcinoma.

Risk Factors

  • Mucinous adenocarcinoma of the appendix is most likely to occur in the 6th decade of life, meaning in individuals ages 60 and beyond.

Prognosis

  • Removal of the appendix for mucinous cystadenoma that has not spread is considered curative.
  • Prognosis for both mucinous adenoma and mucinous adenocarcinoma depends on the grade of malignancy of the mucinous tumor and the success of debulking surgeries in removing all tumors that have metastasized into the abdomen.
  • For high-grade mucinous adenocarcinoma that has spread beyond the appendix into the abdomen, 5-year survival has been stated in some studies to be about 50% when treated with surgery combined with chemotherapy.

While mucinous adenocarcinoma can be cured, the most important factor in this condition’s prognosis is the time of diagnosis. The earlier the tumor is detected, the better chances of survival. Remember to do a periodical checkup, especially if you are over 60 and haven’t had the appendix removed.

All You Should Know About Mucinous Adenocarcinoma Of The Lung

Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma, also known as mucinous adenocarcinoma, of the lung is an extremely rare malignant mucus-producing neoplasm. It is formed by the uncontrolled growth of transformed epithelial cells, which originate in lung tissue.

Mucinous adenocarcinoma is a very rare type of tumor. Actually, only a few dozen cases of this disease have been reported until now in the world. However, specialists have been able to establish a connection between the development of this disease and tobacco smoking, as more than 2/3 of patients have been smokers. Still, the disease has been traced even in people as young as 29.

Symptoms

One of the most important things that should be mentioned when talking about mucinous adenocarcinoma is that this disease usually causes no symptoms at all. In other words, this form of lung cancer is asymptomatic and is usually found after chest x-rays are taken for other reasons than searching for cancerous tumors.

Actually, lung cancer usually causes no signs and symptoms, at least in the earliest stages. When the cancer starts to grow and advances, symptoms may be experienced. Symptoms of lung cancer will include:

  • Cough;
  • Changes in a chronic cough or smoker’s cough;
  • Coughing up blood;
  • Shortness of breath;
  • Chest pain;
  • Wheezing;
  • Bone pain;
  • Headache;
  • Losing weight with no particular reason.

Treatment

Treatment for mucinous adenocarcinoma may include numerous options. For instance, specialists may recommend surgery, surgery combined with chemotherapy, chemotherapy or radiation therapy as primary treatments. Treatment will very depending on the seriousness of the disease and the stage in which the condition is diagnosed. Generally, surgery is believed to be the best type of treatment that can be recommended to patients diagnosed with mucinous adenocarcinoma.

Patients diagnosed with mucinous adenocarcinoma may live more than 10 years without any symptoms or metastasis developed. Statistics indicate a rare overall mortality due to mucinous adenocarcinoma of about 18 to 27 percent. This means that the prognosis for mucinous adenocarcinoma is actually better than for any other form of cancer.

Advances Are Made For The Treatment Of Colon Cancer

Colon cancer is the disease starting in the colon, rectum or appendix, associated with anemia and rectal bleeding. This is the third most-common cancer and unfortunately, many times it’s discovered too late to be curable. That is why, research in the domain is very important and doctors take it seriously. And as soon as they have news and information, they are open in sharing it, in over to educate the population on the risks that colon cancer brings with it. The importance of discovering this disease in time is always emphasized and day by day, more and more advances are being made in this medical field.

For your own information, it would be great if you would dedicate just 5 minutes in order to listen Doctor Richard Goldberg talk on the topic. He is a clinical researcher at NC-CH and offers great insights on the recent discoveries made in what concerns colon cancer. Here is the video:

Colon cancer can affect anyone, this is why it’s better to be informed and to know how you can detect this disease in time. Famous people that had it were Ronald Reagan, former Bee Gees member Robin Gibb and Pope John Paul II. Learn about this illness and make sure that if something happens to you, you can get cured.

The Incidence Of Patients With Mucinous Adenocarcinoma In Singapore

The mucinous adenocarcinoma is a type of cancer. This cancer begins in cells that line internal organs and produce mucin. Mucin is the main component of mucus. This cancer also includes various types, because it can be localized in certain organs inside the human body. Usually, for a patient with such a diagnosis, the survival hope can be up to 10 years, if the invasion is absent. For 90% of the cancer patients that did not suffered invasion, the survival is ensured. In the first half of the 2000s, a study regarding this type of cancer was made in an Asian country. The description of the study and also its results were published in 2004. Because there was not sufficient data regarding the incidence of cancer in Asians, the population of this specific country was chosen on purpose to avoid bias. The goal of the study was to obtain clear results and after weighting upon which country should be the one included, Singapore was the one that was finally chosen.
The data used for the study of the incidence of this type of cancer was taken from the Singapore Registry. Since 1968 and until 1997, from a total of 15,762 cases of cancer in this Asian country, 627 were mucinous cancer cases. The patients had colorectal cancer and their personal data was used to see the incidence of this type of cancer and the survival rate of these patients in comparison with classical hazards model. The study showed that the incidence rate of this cancer remained the same through the years for males, but was rising in two periods for females. From 1968 to 1972 and from 1993 to 1997, the incidence of this type of carcinoma of the colon and rectum had easily risen. Comparing genders, the proportions were similar.
Comparing age groups in this study about mucinous adenocarcinoma, it was discovered that this cancer was more frequent in the younger age groups. For most of the patients with colon cancer, there was an approximately five year survival rate, while for those with rectum cancer, the rates were lower. The results of the study led to the conclusions that rectum cancer is much more aggressive than colon cancer, while differences which appeared between Malaysian patients and Indian patients living in Singapore proved that this type of cancer can affect some ethnicities more than others.